Ian Noble is an independent consultant on adaptation since retiring from his position as Lead Climate Change Specialist at the World Bank in 2011. He currently provides advice to several governments and UN agencies on the measuring of adaptation effectiveness, financial allocation based on needs, and monitoring & evaluation of adaptation related development programs. He is an adjunct Professor at the Sustainability Institute at Monash University and the Chief Scientific advisor to the University of Notre Dame’s ND-GAIN Index. He joined the Bank in 2002 to work on delivering carbon finance to developing countries though forest related activities under the CDM and REDD+ and later helped lead the inclusion of adaptation into World Bank programs leading to much of the early design of the PPCR. Before coming to the Bank in 2002 he was a research Professor of Global Change Research and CEO of the Cooperative Research Centre on Carbon Accounting at the Australian National University. He has had senior roles in the IPCC and in international cooperative research on climate change as part of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and led the core components of the adaptation work in the current IPCC AR5. In Australia he participated in the public and policy debate over responses to climate change and served for the Prime Minister as a Commissioner in an inquiry into the future of the Australian forests and forest industries. He has a Ph.D. in ecology from Adelaide University and his research interests range from experimental and modeling studies of the dynamics of ecosystem under disturbance, to the science-policy interface and the application of sound scientific advice to international development that is resilient to climate change. In 1999 he was elected as Fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering and serves on several National Academies advisory panels on climate change in the USA.