Day 2 Update

The second day of the NAP Expo 2022 explored the theme “transformations to adapt” featuring keynotes on food and the agricultural system, climate change and economics, and analytics of big data.

Transformation of the food and agricultural system and its implication for adaptation actions

Our current food system has many challenges, including entrenched rural poverty, rising food and water insecurity. Dr. Bruce Campbell highlighted four action areas to transform the food and agricultural system: rerouting farming and livelihoods to new trajectories; de-risking livelihoods, farms, and value chains; reducing emissions through diets and in value chains; realigning policies, finance, innovation, and support to social movements. The food system can also be transformed through multiple initiatives, such as learning lessons from planned adaptation actions, building the business cases for adaptation, leveraging private sector investment in food value chains, fostering attention to the cost of inaction, holding entities accountable through smart and multi-stakeholder monitoring and evaluation systems, and enhancing public awareness including through support to positive social movements.

A call to action: food system need to transform, actions need to be transformational and anything less is not good enough

Climate change, trade and economics: is a business case for adaptation needed?

Ms. Bogolo Kenewendo shared insights into the interplay of national policy and participation in global markets to address impacts of climate change and how the current financial structure is not fit for achieving a green transition and leaving no one behind. There is a need for African countries to develop a regional strategy for climate financing, such as the Congo basin carbon market. Additional financing streams the African countries could explore are philanthropic financing, concessional leading with more innovative financing to de-risk financing, and commercial financing. Ms. Kenewendo also stressed the importance of scaling up risk insurance financing for Loss and Damage in Africa, as it is estimated that 500 billion dollars per annum will be needed to cover losses in the whole continent.

Science and analytics of Big Data – applications in climate change adaptation

Technology, information and communication technology (ICT) tools and availability of data must be leveraged to inform and accelerate the level of adaptation. Dr. Enrico Paringit emphasized the important role of big data in the adaptation cycle. Uses of big data analytics for climate change adaptation include coupling weather forecasts and flood models, risk-sensitive land use planning, adaptive infrastructure design, and smart water infrastructure management. Dr. Paringit also suggested countries should develop policies to support data-driven adaptation, and develop big data infrastructure and facilities. Big data, if generated properly, offers big potential for adaptation – from establishing baselines, to generating analysis on impacts and future conditions, implementation of concrete adaptation actions, and in monitoring and evaluation.

Example of generating data for early warning systems

Earth observations for accurate and timely adaptation action

This session, organized by the GEO Secretariat, showcased the value of integrating Earth observations (EOs) into climate adaptation planning and monitoring across different sectors by introducing different GEO initiatives. Examples included how fit-for-purpose earth observation data sets can inform decision-making for integrated watershed management, agriculture, disaster risk reduction, and coastal zone management. Using EOs need not require high-level technical skills to be able to analyze data to be useful for adaptation planning. It is important to identify what might be needed and what is available for use. The scale of data sets matters for local implementation of adaptation and oftentimes ground truthing is necessary to ensure the veracity and also to encourage buy-in of communities.

Monitoring for adaptation results and ambition

Key questions, such as why monitor the process to formulate and implement NAPs, and what use the monitoring is for, should be asked when undertaking monitoring and evaluation for adaptation. The Progress, Effectiveness and Gaps (PEG) M&E Tool is designed to monitor the overall progress of the process of formulating and implementing NAPs. The metrics identified in the PEG can define the success criteria for the process. They can be used to manage the process and ensure goals are being met. Countries were eager to learn more about the PEG tool and how it can be applied. In addition, a backcasting approach was also suggested when thinking of monitoring and evaluation. Backcasting is the process of identifying a desirable outcome and then identifying activities/actions backward – to help lay down key activities and outputs that lead to the desired outcomes. At the end of the session, a clear message emerged that M&E is not just for the sake of doing an M&E. Monitoring and evaluation should have a purpose to respond to and it has a ready utility for the data and information generated.

Accelerating and scaling up financial support for adaptation through transformative approaches

Transformational adaptation is at the core of the financial support under the different financing windows of the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism of the UNFCCC. The Green Climate Fund (GCF) offers support to transformational adaptation – from concept to implementation. GCF focus on increased resilience of livelihoods of people, health, food and water security, infrastructure and built environment, ecosystems and ecosystem services. GCF is guided by four pillars in driving transformational change and this includes: establishing enabling environment for novel climate solutions, catalysing innovation, de-risking and mobilizing finance at scale, and strengthening national financial institutions to drive adoption of novel climate solutions. GCF’s strategic plan for 2020-2023 holds strengthened support for formulating NAPs, and translating associated adaptation priorities into investment strategies and project pipelines. The fund provides a range of technical assistance activities for countries to develop their country programmes, readiness and adaptation project/programme proposals.

The Global Environmental Facility (GEF) secretariat oversees the Least Developed Countries Fund and the Special Climate Change Fund, the two sources of climate change adaptation funding support. In its over 21 years of experience with the countries, the GEF are able to show experience with adaptation projects and potential for scaling up solutions in the future. The key themes of project being supported by the GEF includes agriculture, food systems, nature-based solutions, infrastructure, natural resource management, disaster risk management, coastal zone management. As of July 2022, each LDCs has at least USD 20 million for adaptation under the Least Developed Countries Fund. The Special Climate Change Fund will prioritize funding for the small island developing States that are not LDCs, to scale up financing to these countries.

The Adaptation Fund supports concrete adaptation projects, in most climate-vulnerable developing countries. Half of the fund’s resources are dedicated towards direct access, for countries to directly access financing and manage all aspects of climate adaptation and resilience projects, from design through implementation to monitoring and evaluation. Through its innovation grants, the fund also supports the development and diffusion of innovative adaptation practices, tools and technologies.

Inclusion of (micro), small and medium enterprises in NAPs

Trade and tariff agreements has great potential in advancing climate resilience for SME. An example was provided by the GCF‘s Private Sector Facility of how support from the GCF can reach MSMEs through intermediaries. These initiatives help local businesses to develop and implement business plans to build up and/or future proof their businesses. Several products on this topic offers more information such as the Private Sector Toolkit by the NAP Global Network, in collaboration with the Adaptation Committee. It clearly shows that both governments and the private sector need to be included in the process early on, instead of merely seen as an implementor.

UN4NAPs forum: Land degradation, desertification and drought

Challenges related to land degradation, desertification and drought were brought to the fore by the LDCs at the first UN4NAPs Forum. Comoros, Mali, and Chad, as well as the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) provided technical insights on these issues. Countries exchanged experiences on challenges they faced such as the lack of abilities to measure the scope, available scientific data, and institutional capacity.

Activities of non-Party stakeholders

Non-state actor-led regional, national, or global initiatives have a role in transformational adaptation, as highlighted by Ms. Bogolo Kenewendo this afternoon. She showcased the role of one global movement in particular, the ‘Race to Resilience’, in helping frontline communities build resilience and adapt to the impacts of climate change through a partnership of initiatives.

Youth stewardship in climate change adaptation

Stressing the need to meaningfully engage youth, Ms. Ayakha Melithafa shared her experience and learnings from her work as a youth activist and shared impactful youth-led climate solutions. By investing in the education of youth, improving accessibility and outreach, and connecting them with local organizations, youth will have an active role in transformative climate change adaptation.

Adaptation and related initiatives in Botswana

This special session on multiple stakeholders was concluded by the Government of Botswana, including the expansion of damming and water pipelines from the north to the south to address water scarcity. giving a brief overview of the adaptation process in Botswana. Although Botswana does not have a NAP yet, progress has been made to advance the implementation of adaptation projects which cover water, ecosystems and climate-smart agriculture projects and early warning systems as shared by the respective government ministry representatives.